Background: Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This syndrome is defined by an extremely wide spectrum of characteristics; however, developmental delay and intellectual disability of various degree are present in all patients and about the 90% of patients have a severe intellectual disability. Dental agenesis or other dental anomalies have not been described in previous reports. Case presentation: We report the case of two little sisters born from healthy and non-consanguineous parents, presenting with dental anomalies and one of them with epilepsy, dilated cardiomyopathy with left-ventricular non-compaction, strabismus, history of poor growth, hypotonia and mild language delay. Patients were evaluated in several departments (genetic, child neuropsychiatric, cardiology, odontostomatology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology) of Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy. They underwent investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, dental orthopantomography X-Ray and Computed Tomography, electroencephalograms, abdomen ultrasound, blood tests, IQ tests, genetic analysis. They both have an Intelligence Quotient greater than 70 and a negative neurologic exam. Each sister carries the same 1p36 deletion of about 2.3 Mb. Genetic analysis of the parents' blood samples (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism- array, karyotype and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) did not reveal any deletion, translocation or inversion and confirmed the paternity. A third sib of the probands does not carry the 1p36 deletion or other quantitative alterations. Conclusion: This report describes a new trait linked to monosomy 1p36, namely a mild intellectual outcome associated with significant dental anomalies. Our finding suggests that 1p36 deletion syndrome may present with a mild cognitive impairment or even with a normal intellectual development: this is very important for the genetic counselling, especially in a prenatal setting. Moreover, we report the third study with recurrent 1p36 deletion syndrome in two siblings, likely due to germline mosaicism. Finally, we believe that the dental anomalies should be investigated in 1p36 deletion syndrome and that the spectrum of the condition could be broader than we assume.

Dental anomalies as a possible clue of 1p36 deletion syndrome due to germline mosaicism: A case report

Giorgio E.;Sirchia F.
Last
2020

Abstract

Background: Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. This syndrome is defined by an extremely wide spectrum of characteristics; however, developmental delay and intellectual disability of various degree are present in all patients and about the 90% of patients have a severe intellectual disability. Dental agenesis or other dental anomalies have not been described in previous reports. Case presentation: We report the case of two little sisters born from healthy and non-consanguineous parents, presenting with dental anomalies and one of them with epilepsy, dilated cardiomyopathy with left-ventricular non-compaction, strabismus, history of poor growth, hypotonia and mild language delay. Patients were evaluated in several departments (genetic, child neuropsychiatric, cardiology, odontostomatology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology) of Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy. They underwent investigations such as electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, dental orthopantomography X-Ray and Computed Tomography, electroencephalograms, abdomen ultrasound, blood tests, IQ tests, genetic analysis. They both have an Intelligence Quotient greater than 70 and a negative neurologic exam. Each sister carries the same 1p36 deletion of about 2.3 Mb. Genetic analysis of the parents' blood samples (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism- array, karyotype and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) did not reveal any deletion, translocation or inversion and confirmed the paternity. A third sib of the probands does not carry the 1p36 deletion or other quantitative alterations. Conclusion: This report describes a new trait linked to monosomy 1p36, namely a mild intellectual outcome associated with significant dental anomalies. Our finding suggests that 1p36 deletion syndrome may present with a mild cognitive impairment or even with a normal intellectual development: this is very important for the genetic counselling, especially in a prenatal setting. Moreover, we report the third study with recurrent 1p36 deletion syndrome in two siblings, likely due to germline mosaicism. Finally, we believe that the dental anomalies should be investigated in 1p36 deletion syndrome and that the spectrum of the condition could be broader than we assume.
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1p36 deletion syndrome; Case report; Dental anomalies; Germline mosaicism; Intellectual disability; Monosomy 1p36 syndrome; Recurrent microdeletion
Nistico D.; Guidolin F.; Navarra C.O.; Bobbo M.; Magnolato A.; D'Adamo A.P.; Giorgio E.; Pivetta B.; Barbi E.; Gasparini P.; Cadenaro M.; Sirchia F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1742174
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