Emergence of drug resistance and adverse effects often affect the efficacy of nucleoside analogues in the therapy of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Host-targeting antivirals could therefore be considered as an alternative or complementary strategy in the management of HSV infections. To contribute to this advancement, here we report on the ability of a new generation inhibitor of a key cellular enzyme of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro replication, with a potency comparable to that of the reference drug acyclovir. Analysis of the HSV replication cycle in MEDS433-treated cells revealed that it prevented the accumulation of viral genomes and reduced late gene expression, thus suggesting an impairment at a stage prior to viral DNA replication consistent with the ability of MEDS433 to inhibit DHODH activity. In fact, the anti-HSV activity of MEDS433 was abrogated by the addition of exogenous uridine or of the product of DHODH, the orotate, thus confirming DHODH as the MEDS433 specific target in HSV- infected cells. A combination of MEDS433 with dipyridamole (DPY), an inhibitor of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, was then observed to be effective in inhibiting HSV replication even in the presence of exogenous uridine, thus mimicking in vivo conditions. Finally, when combined with acyclovir and DPY in checkerboard experiments, MEDS433 exhibited highly synergistic antiviral activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that MEDS433 is a promising candidate as either single agent or in combination regimens with existing direct-acting anti-HSV drugs to develop new strategies for treatment of HSV infections.

Effective deploying of a novel DHODH inhibitor against herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 replication

Luganini, Anna;Sibille, Giulia;Mognetti, Barbara;Sainas, Stefano;Pippione, Agnese Chiara;Giorgis, Marta;Boschi, Donatella;Lolli, Marco L.;Gribaudo, Giorgio
2021

Abstract

Emergence of drug resistance and adverse effects often affect the efficacy of nucleoside analogues in the therapy of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Host-targeting antivirals could therefore be considered as an alternative or complementary strategy in the management of HSV infections. To contribute to this advancement, here we report on the ability of a new generation inhibitor of a key cellular enzyme of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro replication, with a potency comparable to that of the reference drug acyclovir. Analysis of the HSV replication cycle in MEDS433-treated cells revealed that it prevented the accumulation of viral genomes and reduced late gene expression, thus suggesting an impairment at a stage prior to viral DNA replication consistent with the ability of MEDS433 to inhibit DHODH activity. In fact, the anti-HSV activity of MEDS433 was abrogated by the addition of exogenous uridine or of the product of DHODH, the orotate, thus confirming DHODH as the MEDS433 specific target in HSV- infected cells. A combination of MEDS433 with dipyridamole (DPY), an inhibitor of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, was then observed to be effective in inhibiting HSV replication even in the presence of exogenous uridine, thus mimicking in vivo conditions. Finally, when combined with acyclovir and DPY in checkerboard experiments, MEDS433 exhibited highly synergistic antiviral activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that MEDS433 is a promising candidate as either single agent or in combination regimens with existing direct-acting anti-HSV drugs to develop new strategies for treatment of HSV infections.
105057
105097
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2; Antiviral activity; de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis; Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; Salvage pathway; Combination treatment.
Luganini, Anna; Sibille, Giulia; Mognetti, Barbara; Sainas, Stefano; Pippione, Agnese Chiara; Giorgis, Marta; Boschi, Donatella; Lolli, Marco L.; Gribaudo, Giorgio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1779970
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