Background: Treatment of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is still an unmet clinical need. A large variability of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) protection has been reported; however, no studies have considered the temperature of the ischemic limb. We analyzed the effects of temperature on RIC protection. Methods: Left hind-limbs of anesthetized male mice were immersed in warm (40◦ C, warm-RIC) or cold (20◦ C, cold-RIC) water and subjected to a RIC protocol (4 × 5 min limb ischemia/reperfusion). In the control groups (warm-CTR or cold-CTR), the limbs underwent thermic conditions only. Isolated hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. A PI3K-inhibitor, LY294002 (5 µM), was infused in warm-RIC hearts before the IR protocol (warm-RIC LY). Infarct size was evaluated by nitro blue tetrazolium staining and expressed as the percent of risk area. Results: While cold-RIC did not reduce the infarct size compared to cold-CTR (51 ± 1.62% vs. 54 ± 1.07% of risk area, p = NS), warm-RIC (44 ± 1.13%) significantly reduced the infarct size with respect to either cold-RIC (p < 0.001) or warm-CTR (58 ± 1.41%, p < 0.0001). LY294002 infusion revealed the PI3K/Akt involvement in the warm-RIC protection. Infarct size reduction was abrogated by LY294002 pretreatment (warm-RIC: 44 ± 1.13% vs. warm-CTR 58 ± 1.41% p < 0.0001; vs. warm-RIC LY 54 ± 1.69% p = 0.0002). Conclusion: our study shows a remarkable difference between warm-RIC and cold-RIC in terms of infarct size reduction, supporting a pivotal role for limb temperature in RIC-induced cardioprotection.

A TRICk to Improve the Effectiveness of RIC: Role of Limb Temperature in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Remote Ischemic Conditioning

Penna C.
First
;
Sorge M.;Tullio F.;Brancaccio M.
;
Pagliaro P.
Last
2022

Abstract

Background: Treatment of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is still an unmet clinical need. A large variability of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) protection has been reported; however, no studies have considered the temperature of the ischemic limb. We analyzed the effects of temperature on RIC protection. Methods: Left hind-limbs of anesthetized male mice were immersed in warm (40◦ C, warm-RIC) or cold (20◦ C, cold-RIC) water and subjected to a RIC protocol (4 × 5 min limb ischemia/reperfusion). In the control groups (warm-CTR or cold-CTR), the limbs underwent thermic conditions only. Isolated hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion. A PI3K-inhibitor, LY294002 (5 µM), was infused in warm-RIC hearts before the IR protocol (warm-RIC LY). Infarct size was evaluated by nitro blue tetrazolium staining and expressed as the percent of risk area. Results: While cold-RIC did not reduce the infarct size compared to cold-CTR (51 ± 1.62% vs. 54 ± 1.07% of risk area, p = NS), warm-RIC (44 ± 1.13%) significantly reduced the infarct size with respect to either cold-RIC (p < 0.001) or warm-CTR (58 ± 1.41%, p < 0.0001). LY294002 infusion revealed the PI3K/Akt involvement in the warm-RIC protection. Infarct size reduction was abrogated by LY294002 pretreatment (warm-RIC: 44 ± 1.13% vs. warm-CTR 58 ± 1.41% p < 0.0001; vs. warm-RIC LY 54 ± 1.69% p = 0.0002). Conclusion: our study shows a remarkable difference between warm-RIC and cold-RIC in terms of infarct size reduction, supporting a pivotal role for limb temperature in RIC-induced cardioprotection.
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Cardioprotection; Infarct size; Remote ischemic conditioning; Reperfusion injury
Penna C.; Sorge M.; Tullio F.; Comita S.; Femmino S.; Brancaccio M.; Pagliaro P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1837661
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