: Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is widely employed as point-of-care tests (POCT) for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The accuracy of LFIA largely depends on the quality of the immunoreagents used. Typical LFIAs to reveal the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) employ anti-human immunoglobulin (hIG) antibodies and recombinant viral antigens, which usually are unstable and poorly soluble. Broad selective bacterial proteins, such as Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and Streptococcal protein G (SpG) can be considered alternatives to anti-hIG to increase versatility and sensitivity of serological LFIAs because of their high binding capacity, interspecies reactivity, and robustness. We developed two colorimetric LFA devices including SpA and SpG linked to gold nanoparticles (GNP) as detectors and explored the use of a specific, stable, and soluble immunodominant fraction of the nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2 as the capturing agent. The optimal amount of SpA-GNP and SpG-GNP conjugates and the protein-to-GNP ratios were defined through a full factorial experimental design to maximize the diagnostic sensitivity of the LFIAs. The new LFA devices were applied to analyze 105 human serum samples (69 positive and 36 negatives according to reference molecular diagnostic methods). The results showed higher sensitivity (89.9%, 95% CI 82.7-97.0) and selectivity (91.7%, 82.6-100) for the SpA-based compared to the SpG-based LFA. In addition, 18 serum samples from cats and dogs living with COVID-19 patients were analyzed and 14 showed detectable levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, thus illustrating the flexibility of the SpA- and SpG-based LFAs.

Bacterial ligands as flexible and sensitive detectors in rapid tests for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2

Simone Cavalera
;
Fabio Di Nardo;Matteo Chiarello;Thea Serra;Barbara Colitti;Franca Fagioli;Celeste Cagnazzo;Marco Denina;Annagloria Palazzo;Sergio Rosati;Claudio Baggiani;Laura Anfossi
2022

Abstract

: Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is widely employed as point-of-care tests (POCT) for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The accuracy of LFIA largely depends on the quality of the immunoreagents used. Typical LFIAs to reveal the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) employ anti-human immunoglobulin (hIG) antibodies and recombinant viral antigens, which usually are unstable and poorly soluble. Broad selective bacterial proteins, such as Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and Streptococcal protein G (SpG) can be considered alternatives to anti-hIG to increase versatility and sensitivity of serological LFIAs because of their high binding capacity, interspecies reactivity, and robustness. We developed two colorimetric LFA devices including SpA and SpG linked to gold nanoparticles (GNP) as detectors and explored the use of a specific, stable, and soluble immunodominant fraction of the nucleocapsid protein from SARS-CoV-2 as the capturing agent. The optimal amount of SpA-GNP and SpG-GNP conjugates and the protein-to-GNP ratios were defined through a full factorial experimental design to maximize the diagnostic sensitivity of the LFIAs. The new LFA devices were applied to analyze 105 human serum samples (69 positive and 36 negatives according to reference molecular diagnostic methods). The results showed higher sensitivity (89.9%, 95% CI 82.7-97.0) and selectivity (91.7%, 82.6-100) for the SpA-based compared to the SpG-based LFA. In addition, 18 serum samples from cats and dogs living with COVID-19 patients were analyzed and 14 showed detectable levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, thus illustrating the flexibility of the SpA- and SpG-based LFAs.
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Broad-specific ligands; Design of experiment; Gold nanoparticles; Lateral flow immunoassay; Serological testing
Simone Cavalera; Fabio Di Nardo; Matteo Chiarello; Thea Serra; Barbara Colitti; Cristina Guiotto; Franca Fagioli; Celeste Cagnazzo; Marco Denina; Annagloria Palazzo; Fiora Artusio; Roberto Pisano; Sergio Rosati; Claudio Baggiani; Laura Anfossi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1841781
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