Gender disparity in academic careers is a global phenomenon, although the causes and consequences vary in different national contexts. The article focuses on 'leaky pipeline' and early stages of career. The literature accounts of gender inequalities in early stages of career with two different types of explanations: 1) mechanisms of female 'self-selection' (discouragement, less competitiveness, family orientation, etc.); 2) outright discrimination against women by recruiters. Less attention is given to those social processes that look at gender as a 'social structure', that is to the structural and cultural factors that operate at various individual, cultural and social levels (micro, meso and macro) and which are produced and (re)produced at various stages of academic career and over time (recruitment, retention and advancement). Based on the Istat survey on PhD holders (2018 and 2014 editions, N=32 thousands), the paper analyzes the gender gap in Italy in the probability of accessing the world of academic research after obtaining PhD, with a tenure or non-tenure position, in both "hard" sciences (STEM) and in human and social sciences (SSH). The analysis yields three main findings: 1) while the gender gap is almost absent in non-tenure track positions, it re-appears quite evidently in tenure-track positions; 2) the gender gap in tenure track positions is stronger in some, but not all, STEM disciplinary groups, while it is weaker in all SSH groups; 3) the gender gap does not depend on gender differences in scientific productivity.

Gender Disparity in Access to Academia in Italy. Are there barriers to women’s early career stages?

Renzo Carriero;Naldini Manuela
2022-01-01

Abstract

Gender disparity in academic careers is a global phenomenon, although the causes and consequences vary in different national contexts. The article focuses on 'leaky pipeline' and early stages of career. The literature accounts of gender inequalities in early stages of career with two different types of explanations: 1) mechanisms of female 'self-selection' (discouragement, less competitiveness, family orientation, etc.); 2) outright discrimination against women by recruiters. Less attention is given to those social processes that look at gender as a 'social structure', that is to the structural and cultural factors that operate at various individual, cultural and social levels (micro, meso and macro) and which are produced and (re)produced at various stages of academic career and over time (recruitment, retention and advancement). Based on the Istat survey on PhD holders (2018 and 2014 editions, N=32 thousands), the paper analyzes the gender gap in Italy in the probability of accessing the world of academic research after obtaining PhD, with a tenure or non-tenure position, in both "hard" sciences (STEM) and in human and social sciences (SSH). The analysis yields three main findings: 1) while the gender gap is almost absent in non-tenure track positions, it re-appears quite evidently in tenure-track positions; 2) the gender gap in tenure track positions is stronger in some, but not all, STEM disciplinary groups, while it is weaker in all SSH groups; 3) the gender gap does not depend on gender differences in scientific productivity.
1/2022
5
32
https://www.rivisteweb.it/doi/10.1424/103557
Gender gap, academic career, early career researchers, leaky pipeline, gendered processes
Renzo Carriero; Naldini Manuela
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1879843
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