Several experiments were carried out in Italy, from 1995-1998 to test red rice control methods in rice pre- and post-planting. Crop pre-planting experiments, carried out from 1997-1998, compared the efficacy of several antigerminative herbicides, in red rice pre-emergence. The mixture of dimethenamid + pretilachlor ( 1.25+ 0.64 kg a.i./ha) in flooded soil gave the best results and prevented red rice germination by about 90%. Red rice control experiments in post-emergence of the weed were performed from 1995-1997, in combination with the stale seed bed technique with 2 experiments aimed at: 1) determining the effects of tillage for seed bed preparation and soil moisture on red rice germination; 2) comparing the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides and mechanical interventions on weed seedlings. The results of experiment 1) showed that minimum tillage and good soil moisture conditions favoured red rice emergence, creating the best conditions for post-emergence control, while ploughing and flooding remarkably affected weed germination. The results of experiment 2) pointed out that the harrowing or shallow ploughing were significantly less effective than chemical treatment with dalapon to control red rice seedlings. This experiment also showed that cycloxydim (0.95 kg a.i./ha) and clethodim (0.28 kg a.i./ha) were as effective as dalapon, and showed the possibility of replacing this herbicide at much lower dosages. Red rice control in crop post-planting was studied in 1996-1998 with 3 experiments to: 1) determine the acquisition of germinability and shattering ability after flowering of red rice seeds; 2) assess the efficacy of panicle cutting of the weed; 3) assess the efficacy of the localised application of glyphosate and cycloxydim on the weed panicle. The results of the experiment 1) showed that the weed seeds started to shatter and germinate 9 days from the flowering of red rice panicles. Experiments 2) and 3) pointed out that the double treatment with cutting equipment and the application of glyphosate (7.2 % a.i. concentration) and cycloxydim (4% a.i. concentration) affected the viability of red rice seeds by more than 90%.
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