The growth of Aspergillus flavus and the production of aflatoxins (AF) during the aerobic deterioration of corn silage represent a problem for animal and human health. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the presence of A. flavus and AF production originate from the field or additional AF are produced during the fermentation phase or during aerobic deterioration of corn silage. The trial was carried out in northern Italy on corn at a dry matter (DM) level of 34%. The fresh herbage was either not treated (C) or treated with a Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) NCIMB 40788 [(at 3 × 105 cfu/g of fresh matter (FM)], Lactobacillus hilgardii (LH) CNCM I-4785 (at 3 × 105 cfu/g of FM), or their combination (LB+LH; at 1.5 × 105 cfu/g of FM of each strain) ensiled in 20-L silos and opened after 250 d of ensiling. After silo opening, the aerobic stability was evaluated and samples were taken after 7 and 14 d of air exposure. The pre-ensiled material, the silages at silo opening, and the aerobically exposed silages were analyzed for DM content, fermentative profiles, microbial count, nutritive characteristics, DM losses, and AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 contents. Furthermore, a subsample of colonies with macromorphological features of Aspergillus section Flavi was selected for AF gene pattern characterization and in vitro AF production. The presence of A. flavus was below the detection limit (<1.00 log10 cfu/g) in the fresh forage before ensiling, whereas it was found in 1 out of 16 silage samples at silo opening at a level of 1.24 log10 cfu/g. The AF were found in both the fresh forage and at opening in all the samples, with a predominance of AFB2 (mean value of 1.71 μg/kg of DM). The inoculation of lactic acid bacteria determined a reduction in the lactic-to-acetic ratio compared with the control. A larger amount of acetic acid resulted in a lower yeast count and higher aerobic stability in the treated silages than in the control ones. At the beginning of aerobic deterioration, the yeasts increased to over 5 log10 cfu/g, whereas the molds were close to the value observed at silo opening. When the inhibiting conditions were depleted (pH and temperature higher than 5 and 35°C, respectively), both the total molds and A. flavus reached higher values than 8.00 and 4.00 log10 cfu/g, respectively, thus determining the ex novo production of AFB1 during aerobic deterioration, regardless of treatments. The analysis of gene pattern showed that 64% of the selected colonies of A. flavus showed the presence of all 4 AF gene patterns, and 43% of the selected colonies were able to produce AF in vitro. During air exposure, after 1,000°C·h have been cumulated, starch content decreased (below 10% DM) and concentration of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicelluloses, crude protein, and ash increased. The inoculation with LB and LB+LH increased the aerobic stability of the silages and delayed the onset of aerobic microbial degradation, which in turn indirectly reduced the risk of A. flavus outgrowth and AFB1 production after silage opening.

Increase in aflatoxins due to Aspergillus section Flavi multiplication during the aerobic deterioration of corn silage treated with different bacteria inocula

Ferrero F.;Prencipe S.;Spadaro D.;Gullino M. L.;Cavallarin L.;Piano S.;Tabacco E.;Borreani G.
2019

Abstract

The growth of Aspergillus flavus and the production of aflatoxins (AF) during the aerobic deterioration of corn silage represent a problem for animal and human health. This experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the presence of A. flavus and AF production originate from the field or additional AF are produced during the fermentation phase or during aerobic deterioration of corn silage. The trial was carried out in northern Italy on corn at a dry matter (DM) level of 34%. The fresh herbage was either not treated (C) or treated with a Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) NCIMB 40788 [(at 3 × 105 cfu/g of fresh matter (FM)], Lactobacillus hilgardii (LH) CNCM I-4785 (at 3 × 105 cfu/g of FM), or their combination (LB+LH; at 1.5 × 105 cfu/g of FM of each strain) ensiled in 20-L silos and opened after 250 d of ensiling. After silo opening, the aerobic stability was evaluated and samples were taken after 7 and 14 d of air exposure. The pre-ensiled material, the silages at silo opening, and the aerobically exposed silages were analyzed for DM content, fermentative profiles, microbial count, nutritive characteristics, DM losses, and AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 contents. Furthermore, a subsample of colonies with macromorphological features of Aspergillus section Flavi was selected for AF gene pattern characterization and in vitro AF production. The presence of A. flavus was below the detection limit (<1.00 log10 cfu/g) in the fresh forage before ensiling, whereas it was found in 1 out of 16 silage samples at silo opening at a level of 1.24 log10 cfu/g. The AF were found in both the fresh forage and at opening in all the samples, with a predominance of AFB2 (mean value of 1.71 μg/kg of DM). The inoculation of lactic acid bacteria determined a reduction in the lactic-to-acetic ratio compared with the control. A larger amount of acetic acid resulted in a lower yeast count and higher aerobic stability in the treated silages than in the control ones. At the beginning of aerobic deterioration, the yeasts increased to over 5 log10 cfu/g, whereas the molds were close to the value observed at silo opening. When the inhibiting conditions were depleted (pH and temperature higher than 5 and 35°C, respectively), both the total molds and A. flavus reached higher values than 8.00 and 4.00 log10 cfu/g, respectively, thus determining the ex novo production of AFB1 during aerobic deterioration, regardless of treatments. The analysis of gene pattern showed that 64% of the selected colonies of A. flavus showed the presence of all 4 AF gene patterns, and 43% of the selected colonies were able to produce AF in vitro. During air exposure, after 1,000°C·h have been cumulated, starch content decreased (below 10% DM) and concentration of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicelluloses, crude protein, and ash increased. The inoculation with LB and LB+LH increased the aerobic stability of the silages and delayed the onset of aerobic microbial degradation, which in turn indirectly reduced the risk of A. flavus outgrowth and AFB1 production after silage opening.
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
102
1176
1193
aerobic deterioration, aflatoxin, mycotoxins, silage, fermentation quality
Ferrero F., Prencipe S., Spadaro D., Gullino M.L., Cavallarin L., Piano S., Tabacco E., Borreani G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1687728
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