Hulls are the principal almond by-products and are rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and fibre. Generally, hulls are used as animal feed; however, because of their valuable chemical composition, alternative applications as a natural food ingredient and dietary supplement should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics and the consumer acceptability of bread produced by replacing 4% and 8% of wheat flour with almond hulls (AHs) obtained from six almond varieties at two ripening stages (green and mature). The use of AHs in bread production increased fibre content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity. In particular, bread containing mature AHs showed the highest quantities of fibre and sugars, mainly glucose, whereas bread containing green AHs showed the highest polyphenol content. The polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in bread containing green AHs were 272.88 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 1145.32 mol TE/100 g dry weight, respectively, of which 60.5% and 52% were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. Bread containing AH powder showed slightly lower specific volume, darker crumb colour, and lower hardness than those of the control. Consumer evaluation indicated that breads with 8% AH powder were those with the most overall liking.

Almond Hull as a Functional Ingredient of Bread: Effects on Physico-Chemical, Nutritional, and Consumer Acceptability Properties

Maher Kahlaoui;Marta Bertolino;Letricia Barbosa-Pereira;Giuseppe Zeppa
2022-01-01

Abstract

Hulls are the principal almond by-products and are rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and fibre. Generally, hulls are used as animal feed; however, because of their valuable chemical composition, alternative applications as a natural food ingredient and dietary supplement should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics and the consumer acceptability of bread produced by replacing 4% and 8% of wheat flour with almond hulls (AHs) obtained from six almond varieties at two ripening stages (green and mature). The use of AHs in bread production increased fibre content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity. In particular, bread containing mature AHs showed the highest quantities of fibre and sugars, mainly glucose, whereas bread containing green AHs showed the highest polyphenol content. The polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in bread containing green AHs were 272.88 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 1145.32 mol TE/100 g dry weight, respectively, of which 60.5% and 52% were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. Bread containing AH powder showed slightly lower specific volume, darker crumb colour, and lower hardness than those of the control. Consumer evaluation indicated that breads with 8% AH powder were those with the most overall liking.
2022
11(6)
777
1
20
https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/11/6/777
almond hull; polyphenols; antioxidant capacity; liking test; gastrointestinal digestion
Maher Kahlaoui, Marta Bertolino, Letricia Barbosa-Pereira, Hayet Ben Haj Kbaier, Nabiha Bouzouita, Giuseppe Zeppa
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1852708
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