Fatty acid elongase ELOVL5 is part of a protein family of multipass transmembrane proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum where they regulate long-chain fatty acid elongation. A missense variant (c.689G>T p.Gly230Val) in ELOVL5 causes Spinocerebellar Ataxia subtype 38 (SCA38), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, cerebellar Purkinje cell demise and adult-onset ataxia. Having previously showed aberrant accumulation of p.G230V in the Golgi complex, here we further investigated the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by p.G230V, integrating functional studies with bioinformatic analyses of protein sequence and structure. Biochemical analysis showed that p.G230V enzymatic activity was normal. In contrast, SCA38-derived fibroblasts showed reduced expression of ELOVL5, Golgi complex enlargement and increased proteasomal degradation with respect to controls. By heterologous overexpression, p.G230V was significantly more active than wild-type ELOVL5 in triggering the unfolded protein response and in decreasing viability in mouse cortical neurons. By homology modelling, we generated native and p.G230V protein structures whose superposition revealed a shift in Loop 6 in p.G230V that altered a highly conserved intramolecular disulphide bond. The conformation of this bond, connecting Loop 2 and Loop 6, appears to be elongase-specific. Alteration of this intramolecular interaction was also observed when comparing wild-type ELOVL4 and the p.W246G variant which causes SCA34. We demonstrate by sequence and structure analyses that ELOVL5 p.G230V and ELOVL4 p.W246G are position-equivalent missense variants. We conclude that SCA38 is a conformational disease and propose combined loss of function by mislocalization and gain of toxic function by ER/Golgi stress as early events in SCA38 pathogenesis.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 38: structure-function analysis shows ELOVL5 G230V is proteotoxic, conformationally altered and a mutational hotspot

Ferrero, Enza
First
;
Di Gregorio, Eleonora;Ferrero, Marta;Ortolan, Erika;Pavinato, Lisa;Mancini, Cecilia;Hoxha, Eriola;Pozzi, Elisa;Rossi Sebastiano, Matteo;Tempia, Filippo;Basso, Manuela;Brusco, Alfredo
Last
2023-01-01

Abstract

Fatty acid elongase ELOVL5 is part of a protein family of multipass transmembrane proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum where they regulate long-chain fatty acid elongation. A missense variant (c.689G>T p.Gly230Val) in ELOVL5 causes Spinocerebellar Ataxia subtype 38 (SCA38), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, cerebellar Purkinje cell demise and adult-onset ataxia. Having previously showed aberrant accumulation of p.G230V in the Golgi complex, here we further investigated the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by p.G230V, integrating functional studies with bioinformatic analyses of protein sequence and structure. Biochemical analysis showed that p.G230V enzymatic activity was normal. In contrast, SCA38-derived fibroblasts showed reduced expression of ELOVL5, Golgi complex enlargement and increased proteasomal degradation with respect to controls. By heterologous overexpression, p.G230V was significantly more active than wild-type ELOVL5 in triggering the unfolded protein response and in decreasing viability in mouse cortical neurons. By homology modelling, we generated native and p.G230V protein structures whose superposition revealed a shift in Loop 6 in p.G230V that altered a highly conserved intramolecular disulphide bond. The conformation of this bond, connecting Loop 2 and Loop 6, appears to be elongase-specific. Alteration of this intramolecular interaction was also observed when comparing wild-type ELOVL4 and the p.W246G variant which causes SCA34. We demonstrate by sequence and structure analyses that ELOVL5 p.G230V and ELOVL4 p.W246G are position-equivalent missense variants. We conclude that SCA38 is a conformational disease and propose combined loss of function by mislocalization and gain of toxic function by ER/Golgi stress as early events in SCA38 pathogenesis.
2023
142
8
1055
1076
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00439-023-02572-y
fatty acid elongase, ELOVL, ataxia, SCA38, conformational disease, ER/Golgi stress
Ferrero, Enza; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Ferrero, Marta; Ortolan, Erika; Moon, Young-Ah; Di Campli, Antonella; Pavinato, Lisa; Mancini, Cecilia; Tripathy, Debasmita; Manes, Marta; Hoxha, Eriola; Costanzi, Chiara; Pozzi, Elisa; Rossi Sebastiano, Matteo; Mitro, Nico; Tempia, Filippo; Caruso, Donatella; Borroni, Barbara; Basso, Manuela; Sallese, Michele; Brusco, Alfredo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1904432
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